Sensors And Actuators
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When installing sensors, you can program them to respond when certain changes occur. For instance, if the temperature in a room gets too hot, you can have the sensor alert an operator. The sensor turns the physical input of the heat into an electrical signal to alert the control center.
Sensors turn a physical input into an electrical output, and actuators do the opposite. They take electrical signals from control modules and turn them into physical outputs. They can perform a wide range of functions, from turning rotors and valves to virtually anything else. You can program them to control almost any action required.
Sensors and actuators often work in tandem, but they are essentially opposite devices. A sensor monitors conditions and signals when changes occur. An actuator receives a signal and performs an action, often in the form of movement in a mechanical machine.
IIoT systems rely heavily on sensors and actuators to operate. Sensors are used to monitor processes and equipment to provide data on how the systems are functioning. They are used to simply monitor performance to provide data that can be analyzed over time to discover inefficiencies, and they can also be used to detect problems or malfunctions in the system and equipment.
One of the best examples of how sensors and actuators can work together within IIoT systems is robotic arms in manufacturing plants. The sensors gather data from the environment and then send signals to the actuators to move the arm to perform a function.
The data from these sensors and actuators is processed and analyzed by connected cloud-based enterprise asset management (EAM) software to track performance over time and provide detailed reports on things like cost and maintenance history to help companies improve their productivity and boost their ROI.
One of the biggest benefits of using connected sensors and actuators within your organization is that they can help you increase the uptime of your assets. These tools are part of a robust preventive maintenance (PM) strategy that is one of the best ways to maintain your assets and equipment.
The goal of preventive maintenance is to increase uptime by using sensors to track asset performance and anticipate when failures might occur and make repairs before that happens. When the sensors detect that an asset has reached a pre-determined usage point, it can alert your EAM software to generate a work order and assign it to a technician.
That would be an example of time-based preventive maintenance, but where sensors can be even more useful is with condition-based preventive maintenance. For condition-based PM strategies, your sensors monitor the condition of your assets and alert your EAM software to generate a work order when it detects a potentially critical issue.
A good example of this would be a cold food storage facility. The temperature in the freezers is supposed to maintain a consistent temperature, so if the temperature sensors indicate that the temperature of the freezer has risen outside of the determined levels, it can trigger the EAM software to generate an inspection work order to see if the freezer is malfunctioning.
Sensors and actuators are a vital part of the next phase of industry. Sensors monitor physical activity and alert the control center to changes in asset performance or its environment. Actuators receive signals from control modules to perform physical actions such as manipulating a robotic arm. When connected to enterprise asset management (EAM) software like ManagerPlus, these devices can help predict equipment failures to extend the life of your assets and equipment.
2. Actuator:Actuator is a device that converts the electrical signals into the physical events or characteristics. It takes the input from the system and gives output to the environment.For example, motors and heaters are some of the commonly used actuators.
Whereas sensors monitor conditions of equipment, actuators drive events within the equipment. Sensors and actuators are often found in the same areas of equipment and systems within an industrial setting. Although they often interact, they are two different components. They frequently complement each other and work together to ensure that various assets and systems are functioning effectively. They both play important roles in condition-based maintenance.
Sensors and actuators track different signals, operate through different means, and must work together to complete a task. They are also physically located in different areas and often used in separate applications.
Sensors work through electrical signalling to read the specified environmental condition and perform the assigned task. However, actuators measure heat or motion energy to determine the resulting action.
Sensors and actuators can actually rely on each other to perform a particular task. If both are present, an actuator relies on a sensor to do its job. If one or both are failing to work properly, the system will not be functional.
Many more complex systems may utilize multiple actuators and sensors to perform complicated tasks. However, the basic relationship is the same: the two work together. Either the sensor sends the signal and the actuator performs the action, or an actuator movement triggers a sensor to send an alert.
Although actuators and sensors often work together, they are very different components of an industrial maintenance system. One often directs the other, and they frequently work together to improve control of a wide variety of equipment and systems.
Sensors & Actuators, B: Chemical is an interdisciplinary journal dedicated to publishing research and development in the field of chemical sensors and biosensors, chemical actuators and analytical microsystems. The journal aims to promote original works that demonstrate significant progress beyond the current state of the art in these fields along with applicability to solve meaningful analytical problems. Review articles may only be submitted upon invitation from an Editor of the journal.
The ability to perform mechanical work has been shifted the technical interest more and more towards sensors and actuators exploiting the thermo-chemo-mechano-electrical coupling within hydrogels. The accuracy requirements for such devices are much more demanding than for previous applications. Therefore, a deep knowledge of both the material and the functional properties of hydrogel sensors and actuators is needed. The monograph describes state of the art and recent developments for these materials in sensor and actuator technology.
The muscularis of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract consists of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and various populations of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC), platelet-derived growth factor receptor α+ (PDGFRα+ ) cells, as well as excitatory and inhibitory enteric motor nerves. SMCs, ICC and PDGFRα+ cells form an electrically coupled syncytium, which together with inputs from the enteric nervous system (ENS) regulates GI motility. Early studies evaluating Ca2+ signalling behaviours in the GI tract relied upon indiscriminate loading of tissues with Ca2+ dyes. These methods lacked the means to study activity in specific cells of interest without encountering contamination from other cells within the preparation. Development of mice expressing optogenetic sensors (green calmodulin fusion protein (GCaMP), red calmodulin fusion protein (RCaMP)) has allowed visualization of Ca2+ signalling behaviours in a cell specific manner. Additionally, availability of mice expressing optogenetic modulators (channelrhodopsins or halorhodospins) has allowed manipulation of specific signalling pathways using light. GCaMP-expressing animals have been used to characterize Ca2+ signalling behaviours of distinct classes of ICC and SMCs throughout the GI musculature. These findings illustrate how Ca2+ signalling in ICC is fundamental in GI muscles, contributing to tone in sphincters, pacemaker activity in rhythmic muscles and relaying enteric signals to SMCs. Animals that express channelrhodopsin in specific neuronal populations have been used to map neural circuitry and to examine post junctional neural effects on GI motility. Thus, optogenetic approaches provide a novel means to examine the contribution of specific cell types to the regulation of motility patterns within complex multi-cellular systems.
ECGR 4231 - Sensors & ActuatorsFundamentals of sensors and actuators, and their applications in smart machines, industry, metrology, and the environment. Materials for sensors, actuators, electronic and optical sensors, electroptics, magnetooptics, and fiber optics sensors, microsensors and actuators, sensors and actuators, signal processing and interfaces. Credit Hours: (3)Restriction(s): Engineering major or minor.Prerequisite(s): ECGR 3121 , ECGR 3132 , or permission of department.Most Recently Offered (Day): Course has not been offered at this time in the past 3 yearsMost Recently Offered (Evening): Course has not been offered at this time in the past 3 yearsView the Spring 2023 Schedule of Classes
Although Sensors and actuators are often found in similar areas of applications i.e. in equipment and systems within industries and often interact, they are still two separate components. They are often said complementary to each other and work together to ensure that different assets and systems are operating effectively. In one line Sensors are detectors whereas actuators are mover. Both play an important role in process control units and conditional maintenance.
On the other hand actuators are such devices which deliver physical quantity (like force or motion) to the environment by converting source energy according to control signal received that can be in electrical form. Here source energy can be pneumatic, hydraulic or electric type and motion produced (by actuator) can be either linear or rotary. Actuator acts as output device. For examples- different types of electric motor actuator, heaters, electro pneumatic actuator, electro-hydraulic actuator, magnetic actuator etc. A block diagram of actuator is shown below- 781b155fdc